A System-of-Systems (SoS) is a large-scale complex system that integrates multiple constituent systems, which have managerial and operational independence. In order to achieve higher-level common goals of an SoS, it is important to systematically integrate independent constituent systems by thoroughly analyzing and designing the target SoS as a whole. But before conducting these engineering activities, a number of various SoS stakeholders and engineers should be able to understand their SoS. In order to provide a holistic view as a common knowledge base, this paper focuses on developing a conceptual meta-model that represents SoS ontologies. By investigating several documents for Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) response systems, we identified essential objects and required features for SoS descriptions. Based on the investigation, we generalized the objects into SoS entities, and we develop a meta-model, called M2SoS (Meta-model for System-of-Systems). To design our M2SoS, we borrowed organizational concepts from meta-models for multi-agent systems, and entities and relationships are redefined to specify SoS concepts in M2SoS. Finally, M2SoS is analyzed with respect to SoS characteristics, and we evaluate if M2SoS can represent high-level ontologies for two SoS case scenarios.
This paper focuses on Systems of Systems (SoS) modeling and architecting. SoS architecting deals with the way that independent components of a SoS can be dynamically structured and can change autonomously their interactions in an efficient manner to fulfill the goal of the SoS and to cope with an evolving environment.
In this context we defined a new model called SApHESIA (SoS Architecting HEuriStIc based on Agents) focusing on the environment and its dynamics. We also proposed a cooperative heuristic to control interactions exchanges between components. These contributions are then instantiated to a case study and evaluated through two scenarii. Obtained results are finally discussed and some perspectives are given.
Software-intensive systems in application domains like autonomous agriculture, avionics and healthcare need to be more and more adaptive. Dynamic integration of components and a subsequent reconfiguration at runtime results in changed functional and nonfunctional properties of the system. Taking into consideration that these systems often operate in safety-critical environment, reconfiguration apropos of safety becomes a crucial concern. To this end, we introduce a conceptual framework that aids in safe reconfiguration of an open system-of-system, by the means of systematic monitoring and evaluation of the system and its components at runtime. We employ an example from autonomous agricultural domain to illustrate our concept and conclude this paper with discussing our planned future work.
A particular challenge to the construction of systems-of-systems (SoS) is the high heterogeneity of their constituent systems, thereby making interoperability an important issue to be tackled. This paper introduces Mandala, a platform to support interoperability in SoS. Mandala aims to offer a software layer to integrate heterogeneous, independent information systems without significantly changing their implementation or even knowing details about each system. The proposal relies on (i) business process models to represent activities associated to SoS global missions and (ii) software agents to support asynchronous communication among autonomous components. This paper presents an evaluation of Mandala and its interoperability mechanisms through a case study using information systems within a smart city scenario.
This paper overviews the main Systems-of-Systems (SoS) characteristics that can impact on their verification, validation and testing (VV&T). Furthermore, it addresses technical, conceptual, social and organizational challenges, discusses which existing approaches of VV&T can be used for SoS, and points out future research in the field.